When: 1950

Where: South Africa

The South African government refuses to place South-West Africa under UN Trusteeship and passes multiple acts which officially divide South Africans into ‘White’, ‘Coloured’, ‘Asian’ or ‘Native’, formalizing apartheid. From this point onwards, the apartheid government continued to represent itself as legitimate in South Africa and to the rest of the world which was accepted because they continued to 1) hold elections, 2) allowed newspapers that criticized the government, and 3) were anti-communist (Trabold, 20-21).


Further reading:

Apartheid.” History. October 7, 2010.

Al Jazeera English. “Is Apartheid in South Africa Over? | Inside Story.” April 27, 2019.

Conway, Daniel. Masculinities, militarization and the End Conscription Campaign: War Resistance in Apartheid South Africa. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2012.

Gordimer, Nadine. The House Gun. Farrar, Straus and Giroux: 1998.

Guelke, Adrian. Rethinking the Rise and Fall of Apartheid: South Africa and World Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Mamdani, Mahmood. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2018.

Mamdani, Mahmood. “Beyond Nuremburg: The Historical Significance of the Post-apartheid Transition in South Africa.” Politics & Society 43, no. 1 (2015): 61-88.

Mathabane, Mark. Kaffir Boy: The True Story of a Black Youth’s Coming of Age in Apartheid South Africa. New York: Free Press, 1986.