When: September 12, 1977

Where: Pretoria, South Africa

South Africa’s apartheid government began to see Biko as a threat, placing him under a banning order in 1973. He was arrested in 1977 and beaten to death by state security officers. Biko left behind several works emphasizing African nationalism and African socialism and was at the forefront of ideological thought behind the Black Consciousness Movement.


Further Reading:

Biko, Steve. I Write What I Like. London: Bowerdean Press, 1978.

Gibson, Nigel C. Fanonian Practices in South Africa: From Steve Biko to Abahlali baseMjondolo. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2011.

Hill, Shannen L. The Biko’s Ghost: The Iconography of Black Consciousness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

MacQueen, Ian. “Black Consciousness in Dialogue in South Africa: Steve Biko, Richard Turner and the ‘Durban Moment’, 1970-1974.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 49, no. 5 (2014): 511-525.

Magaziner, Daniel R. The Law and the Prophets Black Consciousness in South Africa, 1968-1977. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2010.

Mngxitama, Andile, Alexander, Amanda and Nigel C. Gibson. Biko Lives!: Contesting the Legacies of Steve Biko. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Playing for Change. “Biko | Peter Gabriel | Playing for Change | Song Around the World.” February 13, 2021.