When: March 21, 1960

Where: Sharpeville, South Africa

The Sharpeville massacre occurred after a day of demonstrations against pass laws when South African police opened fire on a crowd, killing 69 and injuring 180. It triggered mass underground resistance and international solidarity against South African apartheid and is cited as the beginning of international struggle against apartheid.


Further Reading:

Brown, Julian. The Road to Soweto: Resistance and the Uprising of 16 June 1976. Oxford: James Currey, 2016.

Evans, Marissa. “Sharpeville Massacre.” BlackPast. February 22, 2009.

Lodge, Tom. Sharpeville: An Apartheid Massacre and Its Consequences. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

UN Human Rights. “The Sharpeville Massacre – standing up against racism.” March 19, 2021.