When: October 15-18, 1945

Where: Manchester, England.

After an 18 year hiatus, the Pan-African Congress reconvened for the fifth time after WWII in 1945 in Manchester, England. This Congress was the first to include representatives of political parties from Africa and the West Indies and demanded an end to colonialism. These demands are argued to have given way to more politically assertive stances from African and African American activists in terms of thinking about freedom for all.

Further Reading:

Adi, Hakim and Marika Sherwood. The 1945 Manchester Pan-African Congress Revisited. New Beacon Books, 1995.

Adi, Hakim and Marika Sherwood. Pan-African History: political figures from Africa and the diaspora since 1787. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Fergus, Claudius. “From Prophecy to Policy: Marcus Garvey and the Evolution of Pan-African Citizenship.” The Global South 4, no. 2 (2010): 29-48.

Hogsberg, Christian. “George Padmore: Pan-African Revolutionary.” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 37, no. 2 (2009): 344-346.

“The Pan-African Vision.” The Story of Africa Between World Wars. BBC World Service.

Poe, Daryl Zizwe. Kwame Nkrumah’s Contribution to Pan-Africanism, an Afrocentric Analysis. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Sherwood, Marika. “Pan-African Conferences, 1900-1953: What Did ‘Pan-Africanism’ Mean?” The Journal of Pan African Studies 4, no. 10 (2012): 106-126.

Shepperson, George and St. Clair Drake. “The Fifth Pan-African Conference, 1945 and the All African Peoples Congress, 1958.” Contributions in Black Studies 8 (1986): 35.