When: February 18, 1977

Where: Nigeria

Inspired by The Black Panther party while travelling in the United States in 1969, Fela Kuti released the album Zombie that attacked the corrupt Nigerian army and regime resulting in the raiding of his compound, his beating and the death of his mother after being thrown out of a window by Nigerian soldiers. He later sent her coffin to the steps of the military barracks in Lagos, formed his own political party and ran for president in 1980.

Further Reading:

Ayobade, Dotun. “’We Were on Top Of the World’: Fela Kuti’s Queens and the Poetics of Space.” Journal of African Cultural Studies 31, no. 1 (2019): 24-39.

Lynskey, Dorian. 33 Revolutions Per Minute: A History of Protest Songs, from Billie Holiday to Green Day. New York: Ecco, 2011.

Ogunyemi, Christopher Babatunde. “Fela Kuti’s Black Consciousness: African Cosmology and the Re-Configuration of Blackness in ‘Colonial Mentality’.” African Identities (ahead of print): 1-15.

Olaniyan, Tejumola. Arrest the Music! Fela and his Rebel Art and Politics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1004.

Schoonmaker, Trevor. Fela: from West Africa to West Broadway. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.