When: August 1988

Where: Los Angeles, United States

Over the course of August 1988, “Operation Hammer” resulted in in dozens of families being left homeless after more than 80 officers raided apartment buildings in South LA. This event solidified the belief from minority communities in LA after years of aggressive uses of force by LA Police that LA Police were not being held accountable for their actions and abuses of power. These sentiments echoed through music at the time, including NWA’s famous “Fuck the Police” that has since been the go to protest song against police violence.

Further Reading:

Edgar, Amanda Nell. “Commenting Straight from the Underground: NWA, Police Brutality, and Youtube as a Space for Neoliberal Resistance.” The Southern Communication Journal 81, no. 4 (2016): 223-236.

McCann, Bryan J. “Contesting the Mark of Criminality: Race, Place, and the Prerogative of Violence in NWA’s Straight Outta Compton.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 29, no. 5 (2012): 367-386.

Nyawalo, Mich. “From ‘Badman’ to ‘Gangsta’: Double Consciousness and Authenticity, from African-American Folklore to Hip Hop.” Popular Music and Society 36, no. 4 (2013): 460-475.

Osuna, Steven. “The Psycho Realm Blues: The Violence of Policing, Disordering Practices, and Rap Criticism in Los Angeles.” Chiricu 4, no. 1 (2019): 76-100.

Roussell, Aaron. “Policing the Anticommunity: Race, Deterritorialization, and Labor Market Reorganization in South Los Angeles.” Law and Society Review 49, no. 4 (2015): 813-845.

Stoever, Jennifer Lynn. “’Doing fifty-five in a fifty-four’: Hip hop, cop voice and the cadence of white supremacy in the United States.” Journal of Interdisciplinary Voice Studies 3, no. 2 (2018): 115-131.